- Japanese Edition
- 1. The Indo-European Language Families
- 2. 4 Periods of English Language
- 3. The Features of Present-Day English
- 4. Conclusion
- 5. Reference
⚓ 1. The Indo-European Language Families
⚓ 1-1. The Language Family of English Language
Languages are divided into a variety of families based on their historical derivations.
Here is a brief chart.
English belongs to the Germanic language family.
⚓ 1-2. Language Families and Difficulties in Mastering Another Language
How difficult mastering a language largely depends on what family the language belongs to.
For example, native Dutch or German speakers take less efforts in learning English because these languages belong to Germanic language family.
In fact, English learners of these native speakers need as less as 480 hours till they achieve the daily conversational level, whereas native Japanese speakers spend at least 2,500 hours according to an article published on 29 October 2017 by The Japan Times, Why do Japanese have trouble learning English?
⚓ 2. 4 Periods of English Language
English language has 4 historical periods as follows.
- Old English: 500 - 1,100
- Middle English: 1,100 - 1,500
- Modern English(Early Modern English): 1.500 - 1,800
- Present-day English(Late Modern English): 1800 - Present
⚓ 3. The Features of Present-Day English
|1||Cosmopolitan vocabulary||Borrowings from other languages all over the world provides a variety of expressions and familiarity|
|2||Natural gender||All nouns are basically neutral and others agree with its gender|
|3||Infectional simplicity||Remains only in pronouns(e.g. I-my-me, they-their-them)||Liabilities|
|1||Lack of correlation between spelling and pronunciation||Gaps between spellings and actual pronunciations which make it quite difficult to accurately pronounce words(e.g. name, foreign, archive, bouquet, draught, indict etc.)|
|2||Too many idioms||Lack of inflections and development of propositions have born a lot of idioms which enriches English expressions such that even native English speakers take a lot of pains at knowing and using all properly.||Others|
|1||The number of native speakers||400 millions|
|2||The number of those who speak English as the second / a foreign language||1.2 billions|
|3||The number of countries and areas where English language is dominant and prevailing||30|
|4||Market share in post industry||75%|
|5||Market share in tech industry||80%|
|6||The number of words in The Oxford English Dictionary||500,000 words|
|7||The number of languages English borrows words from||350 languages|
|8||French and Latin origin in the whole of English vocabulary||50%|
|9||The history of English language||1,500 years|
⚓ 4. Conclusion
- The Language Family of English Language: Germanic language
- 4 Periods of English Language: Old English, Middle English, Modern English(Early Modern English) and Present-Day English(Late modern English)
- The Assets of Present-Day English: Cosmopolitan vocabulary, Natural gender, Infectional simplicity
- The Liabilities of Present-Day English: Lack of correlation between spelling and pronunciation, Too many idioms
⚓ 5. Reference
- Why do Japanese have trouble learning English? - The Japan Times - Last Accessed: 4 January 2019
- Old English - THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH - Last Accessed: 4 January 2019
- Middle English - THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH - Last Accessed: 4 January 2019
- Early Modern English - THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH - Last Accessed: 4 January 2019
- Late Modern English - THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH - Last Accessed: 4 January 2019
- Albert C. Baugh and Thomas Cable, A HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGAUGE sixth edition, London and New York, Routeledge, 2013
- Kiyoaki Kikuchi, Kazutomo Karasawa, Ryuichi Hotta, Yasuyuki Kaizuka,『英語史：現代英語の特質を求めて-多文化性と国際性-』, Osaka, Kansai Humanities Publishing, 2009
- Kiyoaki Kikuchi, Takeshi Kioke, Kazutomo Karasawa, Ryuichi Hotta, Kazuki Fukuda, Yasuyuki Kaizuka, Takeshi Matsuzaki,『英語学：現代英語をより深く知るために-現代英語の諸相と英語学術語解説-』, Osaka, Roban Shobo Publishing Co.,Ltd., 2008
- Kazutomo Karasawa, The Roots of English, Kanagawa, Shmnpusha Publishing Co.,Ltd., 2011